E-Flux strives to help each customer get the most out of their Fossil Fuel Traps. This requires a good conceptual site model and knowledge of LNAPL extent and behavior before deployment. Although the Fossil Fuel Traps offer high-quality results, gathering additional site data is useful for determining sampling locations and discovering limitations. E-Flux offers additional prescreening tools that help with:
E-Flux offers quotes per unit or we can help you develop a natural source zone depletion package that is customized to fit your unique site conditions and project objectives. Following are descriptions of several options that can be included as needed.
E-Flux Prescreening Tools
|Thermocouples*||Temperature (groundwater and/or vadose zone)||Find locations with thermal signatures indicating biodegradation; monitor seasonality on temperate sites||Measure the vadose zone or groundwater; easy to perform once or install permanently; inexpensive||Temperature measurements are subject to noise|
|Multi-level samplers (requires a gas analyzer)||Soil gas concentrations, groundwater concentrations||Sample soil gases at different depths for concentrations; sample groundwater to determine extent of LNAPL||Sample discrete intervals in the vadose and/or saturated zone; permanent installation allows for many sampling events at the same location||Need to install new monitoring wells; more time-consuming than some other methods|
|Soil gas probe (requires a gas analyzer)||Soil gas concentrations||Sample many locations and depths across a site to find locations with high soil CO2 concentrations; sample other soil gases (methane and oxygen) for data correlation||Quick and easy to sample many locations and depths across a site; obtain a high-density data set in a short amount of time||Cannot collect groundwater information|
|Well headspace sampling † (requires a gas analyzer)||Soil gas concentrations||Sample the vadose zone of existing monitoring wells to find locations with high soil CO2 concentrations; sample other soil gases (methane and oxygen) for data correlation||Utilizes existing monitoring wells; easy to perform||Only compares existing monitoring well locations|
* Previous work has shown that petroleum biodegradation results in a thermal signature in groundwater (McCoy et al., 2014) and in the vadose zone (Sweeney and Ririe, 2014). (More information.)
† This technique was developed by Jewell and Wilson (2011).